Friday, March 17, 2017

72 - Squamous suture aka Squamosal suture

Like any suture of the skull which joins two bones, this squamous suture; sometimes also called as the squamosal suture joins the parietal bone to the temporal bone (the temporal bone has two parts - the petrosal part and the squamous part - this suture joins the squamous part of the temporal bone to the parietal bone).

                                             It is oriented horizontally and extends posteriorly from the pterion (Pterion is the region as indicated in the figure above, that is the meeting point of the frontal, parietal, temporal and sphenoid bones). The suture continues posteriorly as the petromastoid suture.

                                                       Some consider the posterior part the squamous suture as a separate suture called additamentum posterius suturae squamosae because of its serrated appearances in most of the humans. 

Saturday, July 20, 2013

71 - Thoracic Lymphnodes Classification

*Thoracic lymph nodes are classified into 14 stations:

*Station number 1 : Low cervical, Supraclavicular and Sternal notch nodes.(R and L).

*Station number 2 : Upper paratracheal nodes (R and L).
*Station number 3 : Prevascular(3a) and Retrotracheal nodes (3p).
*Station number 4 : Lower paratracheal nodes (R and L).

*Station number 5 : Subaortic (aortopulmonary window).
*Station number 6 : Paraaortic (ascending aorta or diaphragm).

*Station number 7 : Subcarinal nodes (R and L).
*Station number 8 : Paraesophageal (below carina) nodes (Right and Left).
*Station number 9 : Pulmonary ligament nodes

*Station number 10,11,12,13,14 : Hilar(Right and Left), Interlobar(11s and 11i), Lobar, Segmental and Subsegmental.

- Station 1 : Supraclavicular zone.
- Stations 2,3,4 : Superior Mediastinal nodes.
- Stations 5,6 : Aortic nodes.
- Stations 7,8,9 : Inferior Mediastinal nodes.
- Stations 10,11,12,13,14 : N1 nodes.

 - Stations 10,11,12,13,14 , when involved are considered stage N1 disease of lung cancer.

 - Ipsilateral Mediastinal nodes involvement : Stations 2,3,4 and 7,8,9 - Stage N2 disease of lung cancer.

- Lymph nodes on the side opposite the primary tumor, and all significantly large lymph nodes in the ipsilateral or contralateral supraclavicular or scalene regions, are considered stage N3 disease.

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